Declaration evidence

Participate

Afghanistan

Achievement reported for commitment "Enabling policies created after SACOSAN V at least for two of"

Rural WASH Policy  was developed and endorsed by the Government in 2010. This policy is now under revision ( revised version drafted and ready for endorsement by the Government) which provides framework for universal WASH coverage with women and children and other marginalized groups as the main targets. However the endorsement goes very slow. Urban Water and Waste Water  Management sector policy (2014)  also drafted with focus on marginalized groups. The national health policy draft Oct. 2015 focuses on gender equality  , general equity, disability , children , women and girls. Unfortunately enforcement  and approval of policies and strategies  due to frequent change of top  Managers/ key staff of the Government  and checking and screening by the new advisors  go slowly.

Achievement reported for commitment "Initiatives to address the MHM needs of women and girls"

MHM has been the focus of School WASH programme in Afghanistan. . MOE with support of UNICEF has developed guidelines on MHM  in effect  from 2011. It is translated into local languages and widely implemented and scaling  up in schools and education center is currently  in progress together with hardware implementation ( Incinerator and wash room facilities) . WASH with special attention to MHM has become essential component of new School package. The draft National Communication Strategy of MOPH  also promotes behaviour analysis and positive behaviour on menstrual hygiene. According to MOE after 2013 implementation of MHM guidelines was scaled up in schools . MOE is still working on the process of incorporating MHM into the School WASH programme and school curriculum. . Also an evaluation of MHM intervention in schools was carried out in 2013 (MOE/UNICEF) which resulted in identification of key challenges that MHM intervention faced in schools . UNICEF and MOE at the end of 2015, has started to conduct a research  to further explore the issues around MHM and school attendance of girls. This formative research will cover 12 schools of 6 provinces to identify main barriers that the adolescent girls face during menstruation at school. This will include facts about the type of facilities and information needed to keep girls in school and for the school to become an inclusive environment where girls can develop their capacity and create opportunities for their future. This study will use rigorous qualitative research methods with strong support from the Emory University in the US.

Achievement reported for commitment "New measures initiated for sustainable solid waste management"

NEPA developed Solid Waste Management policy. See above under 4.1. The Environment Law also governs duty-of-care and licensing for municipal and hazardous solid waste management.  A draft Waste Management (Municipal Wastes) Regulation dated 2008 (draft) has been prepared, which states the environmental requirements for processing and disposal of municipal solid waste, including processing of biodegradable waste, but not yet endorsed

Achievement reported for commitment "Standards for ensuring disabled friendly toilets,MHM & schools"

Based on a survey conducted by the Health Department of MOE in 2010, out of 7,769 schools in 27 provinces of the country 37.13 %   had safe drinking water, 39.2 % had hand washing facility used for this purpose, 40.01 %  of the schools had separate toilets, and only  8%  of toilets had facility for physically challenged students. The KAP study in 2010 on MHM led to preparation of guidelines on MHM and 2013 evaluation of MHM intervention in schools led to improved norms for the design of school latrines, WASH room and incinerator including proper location of these facilities  in consideration to the school building. It also led to preparation of training and communication material on MHM for teachers that can also be used by the communities. The study started now on MHM  will lead to preparation of more effective guidelines and standards on MHM in schools. 

Achievement reported for commitment "National Hygiene strategy with emphasis on MHM education"

 MOPH above mentioned strategy and MOE guidelines promotes  MHM  education. The implementation is advanced in schools.

Achievement reported for commitment "Evidence  exist on  private sector sharing the responsibility"

Private sector is involved in marketing Sanitation material and parts at the national and provincial levels.  Private contractors companies  hired by WASH line Ministries , UN and INGOs  for construction of sanitation facilities at the village level.  But a well developed system yet to be worked out.  

Achievement reported for commitment "New initiatives of integrating sanitation and hygiene messages"

Currently MoPH lead the HTWG monthly meeting and it has led to integration of WASH into Public Health plans and programmes but not to the required level particularly at the sub national level.

Achievement reported for commitment "New sanitation products/solutions developed"

Echo Sanitation concepts as a  new solution for excreta disposal in school and communities experimented. However it was found a good option in communities not in schools. CLTS approach with adaptation to Afghan situation was concluded as a good approach to increase coverage in rural areas. In urban context Sewerage approach was promoted to   integrated water and waste water management approach and the relevant policy was revised to cover this concept   by  MUDA.  For rural areas appropriate latrines designs with different options were prepared  and defined  so that the new senses will be conducted appropriately based on the defined latrine models implemented around the country. 

Achievement reported for commitment "Each country  delegation at  SACOSAN VI included  key decision"

The Stakeholders from the four Sectors are being briefed on SACOSAN and preparatory works and their views and comments are obtained through SACOSAN Coordination Team meetings ( with members from national and INGOs, CSOs, UN agencies , Government line Ministries , Statistic Organizations , etc.) and also Water and Sanitation Group regular monthly meetings and the monthly meetings of  its 3 Technical Working Groups  (with national and INGOs, CSOs, UN agencies , National Solidarity Programme representing  CDCs and communities and private sector as members ) School WASH Coordination Team  meetings is being another forum for this purpose  with participation of INGOs, national NGOs, UN agencies, Youth organization, CSOs  . Most of these stakeholders  were involved in the preparation and finalization of technical papers and country paper .  How actively they engage themself  is another question.  

CSO Traffic Light Paper scores and evidence, Afghanistan, 2016

The FANSA and WaterAid team developed scoring guidelines to all the SACOSAN countries to help them carry out this TRAFFIC LIGHTS PAPER (TLP) which is a way of bringing citizens’ voices to the table when governments meet at SACOSAN and to evaluate the progress made by the Governments.

Achievement reported for commitment "% of allocated budget spent over the past two years"

According to the exercise conducted by MRRD all the funding showed  under 1.2 is 100 % utilized. However,  most of the Donors funding in Afghanistan for the sector is given for the WASH package  without specifying what portion will go to Sanitation and Hygiene (There are exceptions) . Also the base for this scoring is the exercise just started last month for the first time by the Line Ministry MRRD as part of the SACOSAN preparation and accuracy on reporting the exact allocations can be questioned.  The reporters maybe without prior allocation and planning has spent some of their funds on sanitation and hygiene and then reported that as allocation equal to expenditure.

Achievement reported for commitment "Protocols specified at least for two of the categories mention"

MOE made WASH essential part of the school package with special considerations  to women, children ,and  disabled with, and  consideration to privacy for women and MHM guideline implementation. Any new school construction is not allowed unless WASH in included. According to MOE the existing schools with missing WASH facilities will be given priority for completing the WASH package. Women involved in rural sanitation and hygiene education  and encouraged to take part in O&M of WASH facilities. School WASH faces challenges of funding. The National Priority Plans (NPPs) also has made special consideration to WASH interventions for marginalized groups . National Hygiene Communication Strategy 2015 drafted  with special attention to women WASH rights, but its not endorsed yet by public health board of MoH.

Achievement reported for commitment " Initiatives to address the sanitation needs of vulnerable"

No large scale initiatives 

Achievement reported for commitment "Special measures to ensure sanitation facilities"

National IDP Policy has been developed, endorsed and enforcement started. IDPs are largely settled in slums. In this context the policy enforce measure for upgrading shelter, water and sanitation in slum areas inhibited by IDPs.  In other slums no policy is developed although in un-planned  dwellings Municipalities and aid agencies provide WASH services but on ad hoc basis and in emergencies.

Achievement reported for commitment "Standards for ensuring disabled friendly toilets and MHM"

According to MoPH, the issue of disabled friendly toilets must be considered in all newly built health facilities; every contractor must follow the standard guideline for building toilets, which includes ramp in the toilet. But no evidence 

Achievement reported for commitment "% of sanitation budgets spent  on hygiene education and BCC"

MRRD current exercise on funding showed that from the  fund allocation to Sanitation and Hygiene in the last  5 years  more than 33 % was spent on hygiene and BCC.  But accuracy was in question.   MRRD WASH programme supported by UNICEF , WB and other supporter as well as INGO WASH interventions  includes Hygiene Education and  Behavior Change Communication as  a major component. 

Achievement reported for commitment "Evidence  exist on media engagement in  Sanitation development"

Radio/video spots: local radios and New Home New Life Drama through  Afghan Education Project (AEP) by BBC, newspapers, daily broadcast of Government  and private TVs like National TV, Tolo, Ariana, Lemar,etc  TVs  are evidences of media engagement in Sanitation and hygiene .  Media  at the national , sub national and provincial levels are largely involved in development and dissemination of spots, dramas, messages, etc for development of sanitation and hygiene as well as safe drinking . Two major issues in sanitation  in urban areas are excreta collection and disposal and solid waste disposal and MoH with NGOs and donor support organizes campaigns during peak period of diseases  for extraordinary cleanings  and diarrhea prevention interventions  where media is a major supporter. In one occasion early this year the president participated in the collection and disposal of solid waste and extra ordinary cleaning of the city with full media coverage. There are news papers private and public that spread messages on sanitation and hygiene . These are routine activities that I have been observing. Media in Afghanistan in addition to political aspect are becoming very active in social development in Afghanistan. 

Achievement reported for commitment "sanitation programme budget allocation for R&D on sanitation"

Sanitation mart and demonstration centers planned by MRRD with UNICEF support  for testing technologies before scaling up that include sanitation products  planned , but not initiated.

Achievement reported for commitment "All the specified groups of population are represented"

Sector ministries: MoPH, MRRD, MoE, MUDA, MoFA, MoF, INGOs, Support Organizations, Central Statistics Organization, National Environmental Protection Authority /NEPA, Civil Society Organizations/CSO are involved in the preparation process and will largely participate in the coming SACOSAN

Achievement reported for commitment "National Sanitation and Hygiene Plans with SMART indicators"

Draft Rural Sanitation Strategy prepared by the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD)  and the outcomes of a National Sanitation Logical Framework Analysis workshop held this year,  resulted in the initiation of a rural sanitation plan for accelerating  sanitation coverage and ending rural open defecation by 2025.  However the process for development of the plan goes slowly. Urban Water and Waste Water sector policy (2014) drafted by the Ministry of Urban Development Affairs (MUDA) already has led to development of plans for few cities including the capital Kabul. Individual WASH INGOs and UN agencies supporting the government has their own plans for their areas of operation. With withdrawal of international forces and postponement of donor funding the planning process has been facing challenges and delays. 

Achievement reported for commitment "Disaggregated data on sanitation coverage of the marginalized"

The MIS and reporting systems of Water and Sanitation Group (WSG) database led by MRRD was redesigned to collect and disseminate WASH aggregated data.  The collection of such data is initiated and until SACOSAN VI data collection and reporting for disaggregated data will progress. . Capacity building of stakeholders held by MRRD to report disaggregated data and tools were developed and shared with stakeholders .  School WASH data collected and reported by MOE includes girls and boys students , male and female teachers and workers. Education MIS disseminates such data  Humanitarian WASH cluster planning , monitoring  and reporting includes data on women, men , boys and girls as well as IDPs, other vulnerable groups  and  disabled . The response site  of OCHA reports disaggregated data. Many NGOs like DACAAR , NCA, ACF, etc also collect and disseminate disaggregated data.

Achievement reported for commitment "New measures (Policy and guidelines) developed for Sustainable"

Integrated Water and Waste Water sector policy drafted (2014) by Ministry of Urban Development Affairs. According to the Department of Water, Waste Water and Environment Affairs Management of MUDA  , the endorsement is pending to complete translation into local languages and final review by the Supreme Council of Water and Land  led by the President (This is a new setup recently formed  and replacing the Supreme Council of Water Affairs Management (SCWAM) that was led by the  Vice President). . The Integrated Waste Water Management addresses the sustainable management of all streams of waste water produced from all sources in urban areas, the complete management flow chain, and the intersections with and linkages to other (sub) sectors including hygiene and health, water, solid waste, energy, agriculture, and the environment.  Based on Afghanistan Environment Law the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)  has designated specific sites for dumping of wastes, including septage and sludge, for many urban areas, and prohibits indiscriminate dumping of waste in any other sites.  However enforcement is slow and need to be implemented widely at the sub-national levels.

Achievement reported for commitment "Standards for ensuring disabled friendly toilets and MHM"

In schools women/girls  and disabled child friendly  toilet facilities designed and are in the process of implementation nationally. This includes MHM interventions based on the above mentioned guideline by MOE. MOPH policy includes promotion of  MHM in other public buildings , but implementation is not initiated.

Achievement reported for commitment "National hygiene strategy with emphasis on hand washing"

National Hygiene Communication Strategy (2015) drafted by MOPH with the support of stakeholders emphasizes on hand washing as a key hygiene intervention. The strategy has not  been enforced yet although implementation in 4 provinces (8 model districts) already started.   National campaign and   national  hand washing days celebrated.

Achievement reported for commitment " Evidence exists on engaging CDCs and CSOs in awareness"

According to MRRD database, at the field level ODF villages and construction of thousands new latrines  and upgrading of traditional latrines with no subsidies are  the clear evidences of sanitation marketing At the national , sub national and local levels , MRRD led Afghan adapted CLTS programme currently under implementation is a live evidence of engaging INGOs, Community Development Councils (CDCs) and other community structures in demand creation for Sanitation  . Through signing an MOU before implementation , MRRD engage the national and International NGOs in implementation of a package WASH approach, which includes sanitation education and demand creation as an important part of the interventions. MRRD with the support of UNICEF trained Afghanistan Malik's Association members ( Malik is the local name for the head of community )  from different regions and they have been  providing training and orientation to the communities on hygiene and sanitation promotion.  Education and demand creation in  WASH is a subject in the  training of CDC members under the National Solidarity Programme led by  MRRD. CDC members in turn do the same training and orientations on sanitation  in the communities.. Key CSOs are members of the Water and Sanitation Group ( with urban and rural stakeholders ) who are part of the awareness and demand creation process in the sector. 

Achievement reported for commitment "Active inter ministerial coordination mechanisms"

Monthly Coordination meeting of Water and Sanitation Group and Sanitation Technical Working Group STWG led by MRRD at the national level bring together all WASH stakeholders, and sector Ministries including Health. TWG on Hygiene Education led by MOPH is also a good example on inter- ministerial coordination between health and other sector stakeholders.  Urban sanitation is part of this mechanism.  The MOE school WASH monthly coordination led by the Department of School Health  is also another good example of coordination between health and other sectors. .  Also humanitarian clusters such WASH and nutrition coordination mechanism developed and led to proper interventions during emergencies. However effectiveness at the national level to be worked out,  and regional and provincial coordination yet to be developed and strengthened

Achievement reported for commitment "% of utilization of funds allocated above"

No fund allocation after SACOSAN V. 

Achievement reported for commitment " ICWG defined a clear space and opportunity"

Already coordinated through different events and  meetings with the relevant stakeholders and Government line Ministries . SACOSAN Coordination team and taskforces , WSG and its 3 technical working groups forums and School WASH coordination were used to disseminate information on SACOSANs.

Achievement reported for commitment "% increase in budget allocation for sanitation"

As part of SACOSAN VI preparation and based on the request of WSP/ WB  , collection and analysis of information on funding and expenditures  is initiated by MRRD with the support of UNICEF and other stakeholders. Information collected to date found that Ministry of Finance has allocated US$  36,000 for hygiene and US $ 60,000 for sanitation (last 2 years), DACAAR an INGO received $ 9.3 millions for hygiene and $ 13.9 million for sanitation from Donors ( last 5 years) , and other INGOs allocation was $ 668,000 for hygiene, and $ 1.9 million for sanitation ( last 3 years). Also SWSS received from USAID $ 440,000 for hygiene and $ 660,000 for sanitation  ( last 3 yrs) . In addition $ 2.7 million was allocated for urban Sanitation by WB and $ 533,335 through BORDA (last 5 yrs). Breakdown was not given for yearly allocation. UNICEF allocation for the last 5 years was more than 2 million US dollars for sanitation . At the same time  household expenditures on Hygiene was $ 10.4 millions and on Sanitation it was $ 18.5 millions. To date it makes about $ 20.84  million US dollars for hygiene and $ 40.25  for sanitation from 2 to 5 year periods . Without  a baseline it is not possible to provide a percentage for  increase or decrease of funding since SACOSAN V.  Also a system is not yet developed for reporting the allocation of fund in the sector. But this exercise left a base for future to calculate the percentages.  It is to be mentioned that in this exercise accurate expenditures were given , but the accuracy of allocation was questionable.  According to MRRD,  Participation of Key Government staff in SACOSAN and SWA events has resulted in the political will and interest of Government for funding in the sector ( Sanitation and Hygiene). Schools usually receive funding and support for WASH from UNICEF  and few NGOs that is included in the above allocations.   

National Urban Sanitation Policy

India Sanitation policy from 2008

Achievement reported for commitment " Special provisions and plans targeting the sanitation needs"

The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015  (HFA) platform was established in 2005 in Afghanistan. Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA) leads the implementation of HFA to build resilience of the nation and communities for responding to disasters. In October 2015 a State Ministry was also formed to strengthen the planning and implementation of Disaster Management Affairs.  A DRR mainstreaming plan for Kabul has been developed in line with HFA with support of Japan Government.  MRRD has developed disaster management strategy for rural Afghanistan and in line with that a guideline was developed by WASH Programme to mainstream DRR into the developmental WASH plans.  Humanitarian WASH cluster has developed good and feasible examples of DRR mainstreaming into the WASH plans which are reflected into the cluster and partner's yearly plans. But the Afghan government and many U.N. agencies and aid groups have not yet fully mainstreamed this in all of their development planning and projects including WASH, except in emergency phases.